SIS and HEB Allan Variance Stability
Last Updated 28 Dec., 2005

With mixers operating at increasingly higher RF and IF frequencies, instrument stability becomes increasingly more important. In order to understand, and quantify, the different noise mechanism's involved, we employ a technique first described by D.W. Allan (1) and ellaborated upon by R. Schieder(2).

1.D. W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards", IEEE, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp 221-230, 1996
2. R. Schieder, "Characterization and Measurment of System Stability", SPIE, Vol 598, Instrumentation for Submillimeter Spectroscopy (1985)

Example of a Quasi-optical Mixer
HEB Stability vs Bias
Measurement Setup

Related papers:
J.W. Kooi, J.J.A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, R. Schieder, M. Hajenius, J.R. Gao, T.M. Klapwijk, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman,

Submitted to the Journal of Applied Physics, Oct. 2005.

R. Schieder and C. Kramer

A & A 373, 746-756 (2001)

J.W. Kooi, G. Chattopadhyay, M. Thielman, T.G. Phillips, and R. Schieder

Int J. IR and MM Waves,, Vol. 21, No. 5, May, 2000.

T. Berg, S. Cherednichenko, V. Drakinskiy, P. Khosropanah, H. Merkel, E. Kollberg, and J. Kooi

Proceedings International Society of Optical Engineers, 21-25 June, 2004 Glasgow, Scotland United Kingdom.

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        Web Page created and last updated on Dec. 28, 2005, by: Jacob W. Kooi